Multiple jobholding associated with the wellbeing of physical education teachers in southern Brazil



Artículos de investigación









Jorge Both1

Adriano Ferreti-Borgatto2

Christi Noriko Sonoo3

Carlos Augusto Fogliarini-Lemos4

Vitor Ciampolini5

Juarez Vieira do Nascimento6


1 PhD. Federal University of Santa Catarina (Brasil). Professor Department of Physical Education, and Núcleo de Pesquisa em Pedagogia do Esporte of State University of Londrina (Lodrina - Brasil).

2 PhD. State University of Campinas (Brasil). Professor Department of Information Technology and Statistics of Federal University of Santa Catarina (Santa Catarina - Brasil).

3 PhD. Barcelona University (Spain). Professor Department of Physical Education of State University of Maringa (MaringáBrasil).

4 M.Sc. Federal University of Santa Catarina (Brasil). Professor Department of Physical Education of Regional Integrated University of the Upper Uruguai and Missions at Santo Angelo (Santo ÂngeloBrasil).

5 B.Sc. Federal University of Santa Catarina (Brasil). Professor Physical Education Postgraduate Program and Núcleo de Pesquisa em Pedagogia do Esporte in Federal University of Santa Catarina (Santa Catarina – Brasil).

6 PhD. Porto University (Portugal).  Professor Department of Physical Education and Núcleo de Pesquisa em Pedagogia do Esporte in Federal University of Santa Catarina (Santa Catarina – Brasil).




Both, J. Ferreti-Borgatto, A., Sonoo C. N., Fogliarini-Lemos, C. A., Ciampolini, V., & Nascimento, J. V. (2016). Multiple jobholding associated with the wellbeing of physical education teachers in southern brazil. Educación Física y Deporte, 35 (1), XX-XX, Ene-Jun.



Purpose: This study assessed how much multiple jobholding is associated with the wellbeing of Physical Education teachers from public state institutions in southern Brazil, considering individual (lifestyle) and socio-environmental (work) parameters. Methods: 1645 teachers completed a socio-demographic and professional questionnaire, besides filling out the Quality of Life at Work of Physical Education Professionals (QVT-PEF), and the Individual Lifestyle Profile (PEVI) forms. The likelihood ratio chi-square and multinomial logistic regression tests were used to assess how the variables studied were associated. Results/Discussion: Findings indicated significant differences for the socio-demographic and professional characteristics of teachers who work only at the public state school and teachers holding multiple jobs. In addition, teachers holding multiple jobs are less satisfied with career advancement and with the balance between leisure and work time. Conclusion: Public policies should encourage PE teachers to work exclusively at state schools in order to promote better wellbeing.

KEYWORDS: Education, Faculty, Job Satisfaction, Life Style.



Objetivo: se evaluó cómo el pluriempleo se asocia con el bienestar de los profesores de Educación Física en las instituciones públicas estatales en el sur de Brasil, teniendo en cuenta los parámetros individuales (estilo de vida) y socio-ambiental (de trabajo). Métodos: 1645 profesores respondieron a un cuestionario sociodemográfico y profesional, además de los instrumentos: QVT-PEF y PEVI. La prueba de chi-cuadrado, razón de verosimilitud y la regresión logística multinomial fueron utilizadas. Resultados/Discusión: los resultados mostraron diferencias significativas en las características socio-demográficas y profesionales de los profesores que trabajan sólo en escuelas públicas estatales y profesores con pluriempleo. Los profesores con pluriempleo están menos satisfechos con la promoción profesional y el tiempo equilibrado entre el ocio y el trabajo. Conclusión: las políticas públicas deben estimular a los profesores de educación física para trabajar exclusivamente en las escuelas públicas, con el fin de promover un mejor bienestar.

PALABRAS CLAVE: Educación, Docentes, Satisfacción en el Trabajo, Estilo de Vida.



Objetivo: Este estudo avaliou quanto o pluriemprego está associado com o bem-estar dos professores de Educação Física de instituições públicas estaduais no sul do Brasil, considerando os parâmetros individuais (estilo de vida) e socioambientais (trabalho). Métodos: 1645 professores responderam a um questionário sócio demográfico e profissional, além dos instrumentos: QVT-PEF e PEVI. Os testes chi-quadrado, razão de verossimilhança e regressão logística multinomial foram empregados para avaliar as associações entre as variáveis investigadas. Resultados/Discussão: Os resultados revelaram diferenças significativas nas características sócio demográfico e profissionais dos docentes que trabalham apenas no magistério público estadual e os professores que possuem o pluriemprego. Além disso, os professores que possuem pluriemprego estão menos satisfeitos com a progressão na carreira e o tempo equilibrado entre lazer e trabalho. Conclusão: As políticas públicas devem incentivar professores de Educação Física a trabalhar exclusivamente em escolas públicas, a fim de promover um melhor bem-estar a estes profissionais.

PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Educação, Docentes, Satisfação no Emprego, Estilo de Vida.


Teachers' wellbeing is affected both by individual (lifestyle) and by socio-environmental (work) parameters. Indicators that refer to dissatisfaction at work and negative lifestyle behaviors affect teachers’ lives, often triggering some pathological issues (Lemoyne et al., 2007; Sandmark, 2000; Santini, 2004).

In addition, some socio-demographic and professional aspects, such as work load, work environment, gender, educational background, marital status, work schedule, and multiple jobholding appear to directly or indirectly affect the quality of educational work, and how teachers perceive their wellbeing when considering their professional and personal life (Al-Mohannadi & Capel, 2007; Bubb & Earley, 2004; Koustelios, 2005; Sandmark, 2000; Santini & Molina, 2005).

In the literature, some studies have shown that a certain proportion of teachers have two or more jobs to make ends meet and support their families (Andrews, 1993; Danylchuk, 1993; Molina, 1998; Silva & Nunez, 2009). Such professional characteristic of some teachers, known as multiple jobholding, can trigger issues related to stress, lack of motivation to teach classes, poor eating habits, greater difficulty in bonding with school, difficulties when displacing between workplaces, lower time devoted to personal activities, among other, which may result in work-related diseases (Andrews, 1993; Molina, 1998; Santini, 2004; Tokuyochi et al., 2008).

It is important to highlight that the conditions faced by teachers can be both physical and psychological (Both & Nascimento, 2009; Lemoyne et al., 2007; Neves et al., 1993; Santini, 2004). The moment teachers become ill, they are temporarily removed, or even permanently removed from their functions at work (Santini & Molina, 2005). Besides causing personal and professional problems for teachers, their removal can cause educational and technical breakdown at the school, and generate costs in hiring a substitute teacher to replace the effective teacher who is on leave due to disease (Santana et al., 2006).

Thus, considering that the work of professionals in the field of education can be affected by different aspects of work environment, such as wages, working conditions, autonomy, potential career advancement, social integration in the workplace, laws and standards, work and total life space, and social relevance of work (Walton, 1973, 1974), as well as disclose distinct behaviors of their lifestyle, such as eating habits, physical activity, preventive behavior, relationships, and stress control (Nahas, 2003), which may be the result of several situations, conditions and/or characteristics that teachers have in their daily routine, this study aims to assess the relationship between multiple jobholding and the wellbeing of physical education teachers from southern Brazil.



Participants and procedures

This was an exploratory descriptive and cross-sectional study, with a population consisting of 13.892 effective physical education teachers at public institutions from three Brazilian states (Parana, Rio Grande do Sul, and Santa Catarina) that make up its southern region, and who were not relieved of their obligations with students.

Sample selection occurred in two strata and only one stage.  While the first stratum consists of the states of southern Brazil (Parana, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul), the second consists of mesoregions from these states; Parana: five mesoregions, Santa Catarina: six mesoregions, and Rio Grande do Sul: six mesoregions. Within the strata (combination of mesoregion and state), the regional education centers were selected.

A total of 5.734 survey forms were sent. Return rate was 28.69%, which consists of 1.645 physical education teachers, of which 654 were from Parana, 580 from Santa Catarina, and 411 from Rio Grande do Sul.  The margin of sampling error, considering fixed confidence interval of 95%, was 2.27 percentage points, determined by Epi-Info 3.5.1.

The authorization of the three state departments of education was initially sought to collect data. After the research was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee (Act N. 036/07), regional education centers were contacted over the phone, in order to establish partnerships to collect information.


The data collection instrument consisted of questionnaires on socio-demographic and professional aspects of teachers, the "Assessment Scale of the Quality of Life at Work Perceived by Primary and Secondary School Physical Education Teachers" (QVT-PEF), and the "Individual Lifestyle Profile" (PEVI) forms (Nahas et al., 2000).

The QVT-PEF form consists of 34 questions divided into eight categories that make up the analytical framework created by Walton (1973, 1974): wages, working conditions, autonomy, potential career advancement, social integration in the workplace, laws and standards, work and total life space, and social relevance of work. In the QVT-PEF assessing, a high level of consensus was noted among the professionals on the topic addressed in the questionnaire (over 70%). The questions were at least moderately correlated (over rs 0.484), and a strong correlation occurred for all categories (over rs 0.693). Finally, the instrument's internal consistency achieved an excellent index (Cronbach's alpha of 0.9482) (Both et al., 2006).

The PEVI form consists of 15 questions divided into five categories: eating habits, physical activity, preventive behavior, relationships, and stress control (Nahas et al., 2000). On the validation of PEVI, performed by Both et al. (2008), it was found that the questions were well distributed, agreeing with the original proposal of this instrument, and the internal consistency was considered to be reasonable (Cronbach's alpha of 0.78). Furthermore, the questions did not show any conflict of interest among themselves, because they have, at most, moderate levels of correlation (rs  > 0.60).

Data Analysis

In data analysis we applied the chi-square and the likelihood ratio test in the multinomial logistic regression. When significant association was found for the variables, crude and adjusted multinomial logistic regression analysis was also performed (Odds Ratio - OR, confidence interval of 95% - IC95%).

Two models were created for the adjusted. While the first model included all variables related to lifestyle, satisfaction at work, and socio-demographic and professional aspects of teachers, the variables that comprised the second model were: state, gender, life periods, academic training, professional development cycles, length of service at employer, weekly working hours, wages, social integration in the workplace, social relevance of work, global assessment of satisfaction at work, eating habits, and global assessment of lifestyle. The choice of variables in the second model was based on the analyzes of chi-square tests and on the multinomial logistic regression likelihood ratio test, crude in this study, which presented probability equal to or lower than 0.10 (p < 0.10). Statistical tests were performed using a 17.0 SPSS software, with significance level of 5%.



Results showed that the majority of teachers included in this study (55.1%) holds more than one job position (p < 0.01) (see Table 1).  Furthermore, when their socio-demographic characteristics were analyzed, considering multiple jobholding, the following variables were found to have significant association: gender (p < 0.01), life periods (p < 0.01), academic training (p = 0.04), professional development cycles (p < 0.01), length of service (p < 0.01), and working hours (p < 0.01).  It is noteworthy that employment commitment with state institution and marital status showed no relation with teachers' amount of jobs.

Table 1: Socio-demographic and Professional Aspects of Sample Considering Multiple Jobholding

*Chi-square estimated p;

**Chi-square estimated p for single group (50% test reference)


Results showed that in both groups the majority of teachers were female graduates. The most representative group of women had only one job (66.5%) and the largest group of graduate teachers had two or more jobs (65.1%). For the other variables, most physical education teachers reported that:

Did not have multiple jobs: Teachers aged 40-49 (40.4%) were in the stage of career stabilization (37.1%), had been working from 4 to 11 years (28.8%), and 12-19 years (27.6%) in public schools, with minimum workload of 40 hours per week (64.0%).


Had multiple jobs: Teachers aged 30-39 (38.5%) were in the stage of diversification (38.5%), had been working for up to three years (36.0%), and from 4 to 11 years (35.3%) in public schools, and had maximum workload of 39 hours per week (55.6%).

Table 2: Association of Socio-Demographic and Professional Aspects with Global Assessment of Physical Education Teachers' Wellbeing

Multiple Jobholding

Level of Wellbeing



p of

1st model

p of

2nd model

Low (%)

Medium (%)

High (%)






















*Estimated p by likelihood ratio test

On the global assessment of teachers' wellbeing (see Table 2), it was found that most teachers had high level wellbeing (64.0%).  Only 2.0% had low level wellbeing.  When physical education teachers' wellbeing was assessed considering multiple jobholding, no significant association was recorded for either crude or adjusted analysis.

Regarding satisfaction at work (see Table 3), the teachers from this study reported being more satisfied with the social relevance of work (79.6%), laws and standards (77.8%), autonomy at work (75.8%), and potential career advancement (71.5%). However, teachers' lowest levels of satisfaction were wages (14.5%), working conditions (39.9%), work and total life space (46.2%), and social integration in the workplace (53.3%). In general, it was found that 65.6% of PE teachers from state public schools of southern Brazil are satisfied at work.

Table 3: Association Between Multiple Jobholding and Satisfaction at Work

*Estimated p by likelihood ratio test

By analyzing the categories and the global assessment of satisfaction at work, considering multiple jobholding, only potential career advancement showed a significant association (p = 0.02) when data were analyzed in crude form. The second model of adjusted analysis identified only significant association for laws and standards (p = 0.05) and work and total life space (p = 0.05) with multiple jobholding.

A detailed analysis of potential career advancement showed that teachers that do not have multiple jobs had higher satisfaction rates (74.5%, OR = 142, IC 95%: 1.11 to 1.81) than their counterparts who work professionally in more than one job (69.1%). Similar results were found for work and total life space, where teachers who hold multiple jobs (45.4%, OR = 0.72, CI95%: 0.55 to 0.94) had lower percentage of satisfaction than their counterparts who work only one job (47.2%).

On the other hand, the assessment of the second model of multinomial logistic regression showed no significant association of laws and standards with multiple jobholding, although teachers with two jobs had higher satisfaction rate and lower percentage of dissatisfaction than teachers who work only in the public school. 

In assessing the lifestyles of teachers (see Table 4), the most positive behaviors were observed for preventive behavior (80.4%) and relationships (79.5%). The teachers studied, however, showed the lowest rates of positive profile in eating habits (38.4%), stress control (51.8%) and physical activity (58.2%).  The global assessment of lifestyle showed that 66.9% of teachers have positive behaviors.

Table 4: Association Between Multiple Jobholding and Lifestyle

*Estimated p by likelihood ratio test

When assessing the association between multiple jobholding and lifestyle, physical activity showed significant association in the crude assessment (p = 0.01) and in the first (p < 0.01) and second (p = 0.04) adjusted models; and the global assessment of lifestyle showed a significant association in the crude assessment of data (p = 0.02), and in the second model of analysis (p = 0.04).

The crude analysis of physical activity clarified that teachers who do not hold (20.4%, OR=1.47, IC95%: 1.09 to 1.99) multiple jobs have a more negative behavior than teachers who reported having two or more jobs (18.2%). Moreover, it was found that teachers who have two or more jobs (56.4%, OR = 0.71, IC95%: 0.55 to 0.90) have lower frequency of positive behavior than teachers who work only at public schools (60.4%).

Similarly, with regards to physical activity and considering the first adjusted model, teachers who are engaged in multiple jobholding have 46% (OR = 0.54, IC95%: 0.35 to 0.83) less chances of having a negative behavior compared to teachers who do not have multiple jobs. And that teachers who have a single job are 1.42 times more likely (OR = 1.42, IC95%: 1.06 to 1.91) to have a positive behavior for physical activity compared with teachers with two or more jobs. It is important to mention that the second model of analysis shows that only teachers who have two or more jobs are 28% (OR = 0.72, IC95%: 0.54 to 0.96) more likely to have lower rates for positive behavior in physical activity compared with those who work only in public schools.

On the crude analysis, for global assessment of lifestyle, teachers who do not have another job reported negative behaviors more frequently (7.7%, OR = 1.26, IC95%: 1.01 to 1.57) than teachers who work in more than one job (4.6%). The second model showed that teachers working in public schools only are 49% (OR = 0.51, IC95%: 0.31 to 0.86) more likely to have negative behaviors than teachers who work in two or more jobs.



This study reported that most teachers engaged in multiple jobholding are up to 39 years old, graduates, in the diversification stage of the professional development cycles, are at the beginning of their career at state public schools in their state, and teach part-time, i.e., up to 39 hours per week. In addition, a considerable group of men work two or more jobs. In fact, the search for additional income, to ensure both the maintaining and the improvement of family life standard, has led teachers, especially men, to work out of state public schools, for instance, teaching at municipal public and private schools. Moreover, we observe that other jobs in the field of physical education, outside the school environment, are often taken by PE teachers, such as coaches of sports teams, gym instructors and personal trainers (Molina, 1998; Silva & Nunez, 2009).

The fact that younger teachers are more engaged in multiple jobholding can be associated with their difficulty on settling only at state public schools, due to their dissatisfaction with wages or failure to fill their weekly working hours at these schools (Tokuyochi et al., 2008). Silva & Nunez (2009) found that a large number of PE teachers in the city of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul - Brazil, were hired to work only 20 hours per week at the school, thus, they have searched for other jobs to fill up the remaining hours outside the PE environment.

Although multiple jobholding is a common practice among teachers who are in the early years of teaching at state public schools, there is also the possibility that it may be associated with better job offers occurring after the completion of continuing education, especially stricto sensu graduate courses. The search for new working environments aims at expanding one's professional experience, as it occurs with teachers who are in the diversification stage of the professional development cycles (Nascimento & Graça, 1998).

Regarding aspects of satisfaction at work, it was found that low levels of satisfaction were found for wages, working conditions, social integration in the workplace, and work and total life space.  Importantly, these issues have been identified as major problems in the teaching activity. The lack of worthy wages and working conditions is unfavorable to this job position, and it has been most commonly described in several studies, both in the national (Molina, 1998; Moreira et al., 2009; Silva & Nunez, 2009; Tokuyochi et al., 2008), and international scenarios (Al-Mohannadi & Capel, 2007; Costa, 1994; Fejgin et al., 2005; Koustelios, 2005; MacDonald, 1995; Smith & Leng, 2003; Smyth, 1995; Stroot et al., 1994; Whipp et al., 2007).

Along with these two issues, teachers have shown some difficulties in getting along with coworkers, as well as in tackling student indiscipline and work overload, due to their limited time for leisure that is used for lesson planning and correction of evaluations. Such dissatisfaction factors have discouraged the investment on the teaching profession (Santini & Molina, 2005).

One thing to note is that the issues related to autonomy, laws and standards, social relevance of work, and potential career advancement were highlighted as positive points by the teachers in the study. However, PE teachers in Greece (Koustelios, 2005; Koustelios et al., 2004) and from the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil (Moreira et al., 2009), have expressed a contrary thought, on which teachers are more dissatisfied with the possibility of career advancement. In research conducted in the U.S. (Stroot et al., 1994) and Australia (Macdonald, 1995; Whipp et al., 2007), teachers perceive greater interference of coordinators in their work.

When assessing the association of satisfaction at work with multiple jobholding, teachers who have a single job were found to be more satisfied with the possibility of career advancement than those with two or more jobs. It is important to note that such association was found only in the crude analysis, taking into consideration that it was shown that it was no longer significant when considering other factors that may interfere with the association between potential career advancement and multiple jobholding.

Teachers who work in a single educational institution may be more confident and involved in their teaching activities (Andrews, 1993; Molina, 1998), thus having greater expectations for career advancement in the educational environment. However, potential career advancement in state public schools depend mainly on bureaucratic matters, which are: length of service in the institution and continuing education through graduate courses (Valle, 2006), and not on exclusive work at a school. Furthermore, this study showed that teachers with fewer years of teaching in state public schools tend to hold multiple jobs (see Table 1).

Thus, the period of probation may also be considered important for career advancement. In fact, the end of the probationary period results in the first teaching progression in career and salary plan, which is accomplished through the presentation of certificates of continuing education courses and training.

Regarding the legal issues that support teaching, we observed that teachers who work only in state public schools have lower perception of satisfaction compared with teachers that have two or more jobs. Such fact may result from multiple jobholding teachers' daily experience with regard to the legal conditions of private employment, which provide no stability, i.e., teachers can be fired at any time. This is different in public employment, where there are specific laws that protect teachers and guarantee: employment stability, outlined career advancement plan, training aid, attendance award, sick leave, and better retirement plan compared to the private sector.

When assessing the relationship of balance between leisure and work time with multiple jobholding using the second adjusted model of analysis, which considered the most relevant aspects in the relationship of teachers' wellbeing and multiple jobholding, it was found that PE teachers who have two or more jobs are less satisfied than those who work only at a state public school in their respective state. The literature describes that the pursuit of consistent salaries to teachers' needs has been the most frequent reason for the occurrence of multiple jobholding. However, this factor reflects on decreased leisure time and increased labor tasks outside the school environment, in a way that teachers' pleasureful life time is being "stolen" somehow, and this also shows that they have considerable overload of work (Molina, 1998; Tokuyochi et al., 2008).

With regard to the studied PE teachers' lifestyle, while the most frequent positive behaviors were found for components preventive behavior and relationships, eating habits and stress control showed the most concerning results in relation to healthy lifestyle. Teachers reported intermediate behavior for physical activity, where of every 10 teachers surveyed, six showed positive behavior. These data might have affected the final results of the global assessment of lifestyle, in which at every three teachers, two expressed positive behavior.

Lifestyle evidence found confirms the recommendations of Chor (1999) in applying actions to encourage the healthy habits of employees. In the specific case of teachers, Blair et al. (1984) stated that by participating on a 10-week workshop addressing health habits for teachers, with focus on regular physical activity, healthy eating habits, and stress control, teachers will be more prone to engage in robust physical activities. Besides encouraging physical fitness and decreased weight and blood pressure, teachers reported greater feeling of wellbeing and better control of the situations associated with increased stress.

As for the associations related to physical activity, in crude analysis and in the first and second adjusted models, this study suggests that multiple jobholding can positively and negatively affect teachers' level of physical activity. The fact that teachers holding multiple jobs show less frequent negative behaviors may be related to active commuting to school, as well as to the moment of moving between workplaces. This behavior, when related to the physical activity of commuting, can positively affect blood pressure and body mass index (Hu et al., 2002; Peixoto et al., 2007). However, the most frequent positive behaviors of teachers working only at the school may be due to the fact that they have more time for pleasureful and healthy physical activities.

Regarding the global assessment of lifestyle and multiple jobholding, teachers who do not have multiple jobs reported more frequent negative behaviors than those with two or more jobs.  Indeed, the accumulation of administrative activities and class management tasks in a single institution, combined with other activities commonly assigned to PE teachers, such as organizing events and fixing small damages at the school facilities may be overwhelming, thus causing them to have a negative lifestyle (Danylchuk, 1993; Molina, 1998).

It is important to mention, however, that by examining data using the first model of analysis, which includes all the variables of the study, no association was found for global assessment of lifestyle, which may suggest that the influences of other variables can affect the relationship between global assessment of lifestyle and multiple jobholding.



The findings of this study suggest that the majority of PE teachers in southern Brazil are engaged in multiple jobholding. Considering the socio-demographic and professional variables, the lowest rates of multiple jobholding were reported by teachers who are 50 or older, and who have been working for 20 or more years at a state public school. On the other hand, graduate male teachers, who work up to 39 hours per week, expressed high rates of multiple jobholding.

Importantly, teachers' low satisfaction at work was mostly addressed to wages, working conditions, social integration in the workplace, and work and total life space. Moreover, the most frequent negative behaviors of lifestyle were reported for eating habits, physical activity, and stress control. Regarding the associations found between multiple jobholding and teachers' satisfaction, greater perception of satisfaction was noted for career advancement and balanced time between leisure and work, as well as lower satisfaction addressing the legal aspects of teachers working only at state public schools. These data bring important indications for the implementation of public policies that will encourage exclusive work at state schools.

Although significant associations were found regarding physical activity and global assessment of lifestyle with multiple jobholding, in both associations teachers who work only at the state public school expressed ambiguous behaviors. Working in a single school may give teachers more free time for physical activities. However, teachers who work exclusively at a state public school may not use this time for physical activities.

Finally, we highlight the two variable adjusted models examined, as well as the crude analysis of data, which showed low association with the individual and socio-environmental parameters of PE teachers' wellbeing. Such findings differ from other researches on this field, which found association between multiple jobholding with wages and stress control.


Declaration of conflicts

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.



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Recibido: 2016-04-29

Aprobado: 2016-05-30

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