Recomendaciones para el examen visual en los niños

Vanessa López-Torres, Omar Fernando Salamanca-Libreros, Alba Lucia Törnquist

Resumen


Introducción: el tamizaje visual en niños es una evaluación que debería ser realizada por el médico de cuidado primario para detectar disminución de la agudeza visual o factores de riesgo que puedan interferir en el desarrollo adecuado del ojo y el sistema visual. En este se debe valorar la agudeza visual, el alineamiento ocular y la presencia de anomalías oculares estructurales.

Métodos: se revisó en la literatura las estrategias para realizar un adecuado examen visual pediátrico por médicos generales y pediatras, para identificar de forma temprana los problemas visuales de los niños.

Resultados: las alteraciones visuales son una de las causas más importantes de discapacidad en los niños, cuyos factores principales de riesgo son los trastornos refractivos no corregidos, estrabismo y cataratas congénitas, identificables mediante el tamizaje visual; no detectarlas a tiempo puede dejar secuelas irreversibles.

Conclusiones: siempre que se detecte en el examen una agudeza visual por debajo de la esperada para la edad del paciente, pobre fijación y/o seguimiento después de los 3 meses, alteración del balance muscular, alteración del reflejo rojo, etc., se debe remitir el niño a un profesional de la salud visual para prevenir pérdida visual permanente.


Palabras clave


Ambliopía; Agudeza Visual; Niño; Selección visual

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Referencias


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.%20iatreia.v32n1a05 Resumen : 435 PDF : 181

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