Expresión de Ciclooxigenasa-2 en carcinoma colorrectal, una revisión narrativa

Inés Benedetti-Padrón, Daniel Becerra-Mejía

Resumen


El desarrollo del carcinoma colorrectal es un proceso secuencial asociado con la inestabilidad cromosómica y con mutaciones de oncogenes como KRAS, de genes supresores de tumor como p53, o con pérdida del gen APC, causando transformación y proliferación celular descontrolada. La ciclooxigenasa-2 (COX-2) es una enzima inducible, cuya expresión puede ser influenciada por estímulos proinflamatorios y mitógenos como los ocasionados por citoquinas y factores de crecimiento. Esta ha sido propuesta como reguladora de la proliferación celular y se ha planteado que puede jugar un papel importante en el desarrollo del tejido metaplásico y displásico, así como en el desarrollo y progresión de diferentes tipos de tumores, entre ellos el carcinoma colorrectal. Se han utilizado diferentes técnicas para identificar el nivel de COX-2 en neoplasias colorrectales, una de las más utilizadas es la inmunohistoquímica, que ha permitido demostrar mayor expresión de la enzima en el tejido tumoral en comparación con la mucosa colorrectal normal. La mayoría de los estudios publicados han sugerido que la sobreexpresión común de COX-2 en el carcinoma colorrectal podría ser utilizada como biomarcador para esta neoplasia.


Palabras clave


Ciclooxigenasa 2; Inmunohistoquímica; Neoplasia Colorrectal

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Referencias


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