Polyurethane flexible foam recycling via glycolysis using Zn/Sn/Al hydrotalcites as heterogeneous catalyst

Yesica Dayana Morcillo-Bolaños, William José Malule-Herrera, Juan Carlos Ortiz-Arango, Aida Luz Villa-Holguín

Abstract


Polyurethane is a highly versatile material used in comfort, packaging and isolation industries. The global production of polyurethane generates several million tons of non-biodegradable wastes. In this research, the chemical recovery of polyol from polyurethane flexible foam (PUF) wastes was explored. The polyol recovery from PUF was carried out via glycolysis with diethylene glycol (DEG) as a glycolysis agent, Zn/Sn/Al hydrotalcite (HTC) as a heterogeneous catalyst under inert atmosphere using several reaction conditions. The most suitable reaction conditions were achieved for 3 h of reaction, PUF/DEG mass ratio of 1.5 and HTC/DEG of 0.001. The HTC was characterized by FTIR, XRD, TEM and chemical analysis. The recovered polyol was characterized using IR, viscometry and GPC; density and water content was also determined. The recovered polyol was used in the synthesis of PUF as a partial replacement of virgin polyols, and the resultant foams were analyzed using compression tests.


Keywords


Polyurethane, chemical recycling, catalyst, Zn/Sn/Al, compression tests, polyol

Full Text:

PDF

References


C. Defonseka, “Foam is a Good Air Sealant,” in Practical Guide to Flexible Polyurethane Foams, Smithers Rapra Technology, 2013, pp. 58–60.

M. M. Alavi, “Brief Review of the Methods of Recycling of Polyurethane Foam Wastes,” in Recycling of Polyurethane Wastes, Smithers Rapra Technology, 2016, pp. 13–48.

H. Ulrich et al., “Recycling of Polyurethane and Polyisocyanurate Foam,” Polymer Engineering & Science, vol. 18, no. 11, pp. 844–848, 1978.

M. Murai, M. Sanou, T. Fujimoto, and F. Baba, “Glycolysis of Rigid Polyurethane Foam under Various Reaction Conditions,” J. Cell. Plast., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 15–27, 2003.

M. M. Alavi Nikje and F. H. A. Mohammadi, “Sorbitol/glycerin/water ternary system as a novel glycolysis agent for flexible polyurethane foam in the chemical recycling using microvawe radiation,” Polimery/Polymers, vol. 54, no. 7–8, pp. 541–545, 2009.

M. M. A. Nikje, M. Haghshenas, and A. B. Garmarudi, “Glycolysis of Waste Polyurethane Integral Skin Foams from Steering Wheel,” Polym. Plast. Technol. Eng., vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 569–573, 2006.

C. Molero, A. De Lucas, and J. F. Rodríguez, “Recovery of polyols from flexible polyurethane foam by ‘split-phase’ glycolysis with new catalysts”, Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 91, no.4, pp. 894-901, 2006.

C. H. Wu, C. Y. Chang, C. M. Cheng, and H. C. Huang, “Glycolysis of waste flexible polyurethane foam,” Polym. Degrad. Stab., vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 103–111, 2003.

C. Molero, A. de Lucas, F. Romero, and J. F. Rodríguez, “Glycolysis of flexible polyurethane wastes using stannous octoate as the catalyst,” Chem. Feed. Recycl. Other Innov. Recycl., vol. 11, pp. 130–132, 2009.

D. Simón, et al., “Glycolysis of flexible polyurethane wastes using stannous octoate as the catalyst: Study on the influence of reaction parameters,” Polymer Degradation and Stability. Degrad, vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 144–149, 2013.

M. Zhu, et al., “Investigation of solid catalysts for glycolysis of polyethylene terephthalate,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 185–186, pp. 168–177, 2012.

M. Zhu, Z. Li, Q. Wang, X. Zhou, and X. Lu, “Characterization of Solid Acid Catalysts and Their Reactivity in the Glycolysis of Poly(ethylene terephthalate),” Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 51, no. 36, pp. 11659–11666, 2012.

F. Chen, et al., “Calcined Zn/Al hydrotalcites as solid base catalysts for glycolysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate),”Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 131, pp. 1–10, 2014.

C. Molero, A. De Lucas, and J. F. Rodríguez, “Recovery of polyols from flexible polyurethane foam by ‘“ split-phase ”’ glycolysis : Study on the influence of reaction parameters,” Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 93, pp. 353–361, 2008.

T. Wang, et al., “The electrochemical performances of Zn-Sn-Al-hydrotalcites in Zn-Ni secondary cells,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 257, pp. 174–180, 2014.

R. Wang, et al., “Superior cycle stability and high rate capability of Zn-Al-In-hydrotalcite as negative electrode materials for Ni-Zn secondary batteries,” Journal of Power Sources, vol. 251, pp. 344–350, 2014.

N. Hekmatjoo, et al., “Modeling of glycolysis of flexible polyurethane foam wastes by artificial neural network methodology,” Polymer International, vol. 64, no. 9, pp. 1111–1120, 2015.

ASTM International, “Standard Test Method for Polyurethane Raw Materials : Determination of Specific Gravity of Polyols 1 TEST METHOD A — SPECIFIC GRAVITY USING A,” vol. 7, no. Reapproved 2013, pp. 15–17, 2017.

E. M. Ravei and M. Pearce, “Flexible Polyurethane Foam . L Thermal Decomposition of a Polyether-based , Water-blown Commercial Type of Flexible Polyurethane Foam”, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 63, no.1, pp. 47–74, 1997.

F. Bruma, “Application of hydrotalcites as adsorbents for the reduction of contamination by water and soil pesticides”, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Cordoba. Science Faculty. Department of Inorganic Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Monteria, Colombia, 2010.

C. A. Antonyraj, P. Koilraj, and S. Kannan, “Synthesis of delaminated LDH: A facile two step approach”, Chemical Communications, vol. 46, no.11, pp. 1902–1904, 2010.

K. Okamoto, N. Iyi, and T. Sasaki, “Factors affecting the crystal size of the MgAl-LDH ( layered double hydroxide ) prepared by using ammonia-releasing reagents”, Applied Clay Science, vol. 46, no.1-2, pp. 23–31, 2007.

K. Abderrazek, N. F. Srasra, and E. Srasra, “Synthesis and Characterization of [Zn-Al] Layered Double Hydroxides: Effect of the Operating Parameters”, Journal of the chinese chemical society. vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 346-353, 2017.

G. Mishra, et al.,“Orientation of Organic Anions in Zn-Al Layered Double Hydroxides with Enhanced Antibacterial Property”, Environmental Engineering Science, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 516-527, 2017.

BASF, “ Safety Sheet PLURACOL 4156 POLYOL”, 2015.

SONGHAN Plastic Technology, “BASF Pluracol 4156 Slabstock Foam Polyol”, Shanghai, 2017.

M. Alavi Nikje, M. Haghshenas, and A. Bagheri Garmarundi, , “Glycolysis of waste polyurethane integral skin foams from sterring wheel”, Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering., vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 569–573, 2006.

D. Simón, et al., “Glycolysis of high resilience flexible polyurethane foams containing polyurethane dispersion polyol”, Polymer Degradation and Stability, vol. 133, pp. 119–130, 2016.

J. J. Iruin and M. J. Fernandez, “Nature of polymeric materials”, Polymer science fundamentals, Pensilvania: Technomic, 1996, pp. 22.

M. C. Gutiérrez-Bouzán, A. Burdó, and J. Cegarra, “Chromatography of exclusion: Analysis of the distribution of molecular weights in silicones by GPC”, INTEXTER BULLETIN (U.P.C.), no. 135, pp. 33–40, 2009.

D. V. W. M. De Vries, “Characterization of polymeric foams”, Netherlands: Eindhoven University of Technology, 2009.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.redin.n87a10

Esta publicación hace parte del Sistema de Revistas de la Universidad de Antioquia
¿Quieres aprender a usar el Open Journal system? Ingresa al Curso virtual
Este sistema es administrado por el Programa Integración de Tecnologías a la Docencia
Universidad de Antioquia
Powered by Public Knowledge Project