Thermodynamic and kinetic study of the recovery of tungsten and cobalt from tool waste

Nestor Ricardo Rojas-Reyes, Sebastian Sierra-Perez, Jose Martinez-Zambrano, Hugo Alfonso Rojas-Sarmiento


In the present research work, the recovery of tungsten and cobalt from waste coming from tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) tools, which are widely used in the metalworking industry, was analyzed. The WC-Co waste was characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with microanalysis (SEM/EDS). The process started with the oxidation of the waste to obtain a mixture of oxides (WO3 and CoWO4). The ΔH and ΔG were calculated both for the oxidation and reduction processes. Thermodynamic and non-isothermal kinetic analyses were carried out to obtain a stability diagram where theoretical and experimental data are defined by transformation lines as a function of temperature; in addition, the apparent activation energy was determined. By a hydrogen reduction process, high-purity tungsten and cobalt in metallic form were obtained.


Tungsten, Cobalt, OPT/RPT, thermodynamics, non-isothermic kinetics

Full Text:



S. Kim, B. Seo, and S. Son, “Dissolution behavior of cobalt from WC–Co hard metal scraps by oxidation and wet milling process,” Hydrometallurgy, vol. 143, pp. 28–33, Mar. 2014.

U. D. of the Interior and U. G. Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries 2018. Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey, 2018.

V. A. y F. Romero y M. Salvador y D. Busquets, “Reactividad matriz-refuerzo en compuestos de matriz de titanio pulvimetalúrgico,” Revista de Metalurgia, vol. 43, no. 6, 2007.

W. F. Smith and J. Hashemi, Foundations of Materials Science and Engineering, 4th ed. México: McGraw-Hill, 2004.

S. Kalpakjian and S. Schmid, Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, 6th ed. New York: Prentice Hall, 2009.

B. Liu and et al, “Recovery of tungsten carbides to prepare the ultrafine WC-Co composite powder by two-step reduction process,” Powder Technology, vol. 306, pp. 113–119, Jan. 2017.

U. D. of the Interior and U. G. Survey, Tungsten Recycling in the United States in 2000. Reston, Virginia: U.S. Geological Survey, 2011.

E. Altuncu, F. Ustel, A. Türk, S. Ozturk, and G. Erdoğan, “Cutting-tool recycling process with the zinc-melt method for obtaining thermal-spray feedstock powder (wc-co),” vol. 47, pp. 115–118, Jan. 2013.

R. Paul, W. Te Riele, and M. Nicol, “A novel process for recycling tungsten carbide scrap,” vol. 15, pp. 41–56, Aug. 1985.

M. Latha and S. Venkatachalam, “Electrolytic recovery of tungsten and cobalt from tungsten carbide scrap,” Hydrometallurgy, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 353–361, Aug. 1989.

A. Vesel, M. Mozetic, and M. Balat, “Phase transformation in tungsten carbide–cobalt composite during high temperature treatment in microwave hydrogen plasma,” Ceramics International, vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 6107–6113, Dec. 2012.

J. Gallego, G. Sierra-Gallego, J. Tapia, F. Mondragón, and C. Batiot-Dupeyrat, “Activation of CO2 on Ni/La2O3: non-isothermal kinetic study on the basis of thermogravimetric studies,” Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis, vol. 119, no. 1, pp. 179–193, Oct. 2016.

A. S. Kurlov and A. I. Gusev, “Tungsten carbides and W-C phase diagram,” Inorganic Materials, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 121–127, Feb. 2006.

S. Cetinkaya and S. Eroglu, “Reduction of tungsten trioxide with ethanol,” Int. J. Refract. Met. Hard Mater., vol. 64, pp. 184–189, Apr. 2017.

E. Bedolla, C. León, and E. Aguilar, “Aplicación de técnicas cinéticas no isotérmicas en la reducción de tres minerales de hierro de grado comercial,” Revista de Metalurgia, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 239–249, 1997.

DOI: Abstract : 244 PDF : 235

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Esta publicación hace parte del Sistema de Revistas de la Universidad de Antioquia
¿Quieres aprender a usar el Open Journal system? Ingresa al Curso virtual
Este sistema es administrado por el Programa Integración de Tecnologías a la Docencia
Universidad de Antioquia
Powered by Public Knowledge Project