Exporting industrial SMEs in Colombia: an analysis of their real activity

Fernando Mesa Parra, Raúl Torres Salamanca

Abstract


This paper examines why some small and medium enterprises, or SMEs, export while others do not, even when they face similar macroeconomic and trade policy situations. With this aim, the difference between SMEs that are exporters and those that are not during the period 2000-2012 is analysed statistically. The analysis confirms the modest orientation of Colombia’s industrial structure towards international markets. The SMEs that exported grew more in terms of industrial production than the non-exporting ones; in addition, they exhibited the greatest levels of capital and total number of employees. The hypothesis on pre-selection of SMEs to export according to labour productivity levels is also verified. Likewise, the companies that recorded the highest levels of productivity also presented the highest probabilities of exporting, although this probability registered a decreasing trend in the period analysed. The probability to export was also affected positively by those firms that did it in the past.

Keywords


Models of trade with imperfect competition; economies of scale; empirical studies of trade; heterogenous firms

References


Bernard, Andrew B. & Jensen, J. Bradford (1999). “Exceptional exporter performance: cause, effect, or both?”, Journal of International Economics, Vol. 47, pp. 1-25.

Bernard, Andrew B. & Jensen, J. Bradford (2004). “Why Some Firms Export”, The Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 86, No. 2, 561-569.

Bernard, Andrew B.; Jensen, J. Bradford & Kortum, Samuel S. (2003). “Plants and productivity in international trade”, American Economic Review, Vol. 93, No. 4, pp. 1268-1290.

Bernard, Andrew B.; Jensen, J. Bradford; Redding, Stephen J. & Schott, Peter K. (2007). “Firms in International Trade”, The Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 105-130.

Brooks, Eileen L. (2006). “Why don’t firms export more? Product quality and Colombian plants”, Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 80, No. 1, pp. 160-178.

Clerides, Sofronis; Lach, Saul & Tybout, James (1998). “Is Learning by Exporting Important? Micro-Dynamic Evidence from Colombia, Mexico, and Morocco”, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 113, No. 3, pp. 903-947.

Correa, Alexander & Roa, Santiago (2012). “Diferencias en el desempeño exportador de las Pymes colombianas”, Revista Civilizar de Empresa y Economía, Vol. 3, No. 5, 62-80.

Eaton, Jonathan; Eslava, Marcela; Hernández, Mónica; Kugler, Maurice; Montes, Enrique; Rueda, Miguel & Tybout, James (2007). “Mercados de exportación: entramos, salimos, nos quedamos”, Revista del Banco de la República, Vol. 80, No. 951, pp. 10-27.

Eaton Jonathan; Kortum, Samuel & Kramarz, Francis (2004). “Dissecting Trade: Firms, Industries, and Export Destinations”, The American Economic Review, Vol. 94, No. 2, pp. 150-154.

Helpman, Elhanan; Melitz, Marc & Yeaple, Stephen (2004). “Export versus FDI with Heterogeneous Firms”, The American Economic Review, Vol. 94, No. 1, pp. 300-16.

Lawless, Martina (2009). “Firm export dynamics and the geography of trade”, Journal of International Economics, Vol. 77, No. 2, pp. 245-254.

Mesa, Fernando & Perilla, Juan Ricardo (2007). “Exportaciones óptimas y políticas comerciales para las industrias de textiles y de confecciones: casos de Colombia y México 1989-2002”, El Trimestre Económico, Vol. 74, No. 293, pp. 195-221.

Meléndez, Marcela (2013). “Internacionalización de las Pymes en Colombia”, Revista Integración & Comercio, Vol. 37, No. 17, pp. 25-40.

Melitz, Marc J. (2003). “The Impact of Trade on Intra-Industry Reallocations and Aggregate Industry Productivity”, Econometrica, Vol. 71, No. 6, pp. 1695-1725.

Melitz, Marc J. (2008) “International Trade and Heterogeneous Firms. En: Durlauf, S. & Blume, L. (Eds.), New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. New York: Macmillan Publisher.

Milesi, Darío; Moori, Virginia; Verónica, Robert & Yoguel, Gabriel (2007). “Desarrollo de ventajas competitivas: pymes exportadoras exitosas en Argentina, Chile y Colombia”, Revista de la CEPAL, Vol. 92, 25-43.

Milesi, Darío & Aggio, Carlos (2008). “Éxito exportador, innovación e impacto social: un estudio exploratorio de Pymes exportadoras latinoamericanas”, Working Paper, FUNDES-BID.

Moori, Virginia; Rodríguez, Astrid; Yoguel, Gabriel & Granados, Amanda (2005). Perfil de las Pymes exportadoras exitosas: El caso colombiano. Bogotá: FUNDES.

Nassimbeni, Guido (2001). “Technology, innovation capacity, and the export attitude of small manufacturing firms: a logit/tobit model”, Research Policy, Vol. 30, No. 2, pp. 245-262.

Roberts, Mark & Tybout, James (1997). “The Decision to Export in Colombia: An Empirical Model of Entry with Sunk Costs”, The American Economic Review, Vol. 87, No. 4, pp. 545-64.

Uribe, Claudia M.; Ardila, Gustavo & Esmerald, Fernando (2006). Financiamiento y promoción a la PYME Exportadora: Caso colombiano. Perú: Programa ALIDE-BID-FOMIN.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.le.n90a05 Abstract : 126 PDF (Español (España)) : 57

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


Esta publicación hace parte del Sistema de Revistas de la Universidad de Antioquia
¿Quieres aprender a usar el Open Journal system? Ingresa al Curso virtual
Este sistema es administrado por el Programa Integración de Tecnologías a la Docencia
Universidad de Antioquia
Powered by Public Knowledge Project