Bebidas energizantes: efectos benéficos y perjudiciales para la salud

Julio César Sánchez, César Ramón Romero, Cristhian David Arroyave, Andrés Mauricio García, Fabián David Giraldo, Leidy Viviana Sánchez

Resumen


Antecedentes: las bebidas energizantes se promueven como curas milagrosas contra el cansancio, lo cual ha logrado que su consumo se incremente progresivamente. Objetivo: revisar el estado actual del conocimiento respecto a las bebidas energizantes y sus componentes, particularmente sus efectos benéficos y adversos. Materiales y métodos: se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica abierta en las bases de datos Science Direct, Scielo, Medline y Pubmed utilizando diferentes combinaciones de los siguientes descriptores: energy drinks, marketing, caffeine, taurine, glucose, guarana, xantine, vitamins, pharmacology, heart rate, cognition, natural product, decision-making. Resultados: aunque no se conocen con claridad todos los componentes y sus concentraciones en las bebidas energizantes comercializadas, algunos de los componentes más comunes, tales como la cafeína y la taurina, tienen efectos adversos demostrados. Conclusión: no existen estudios concluyentes que demuestren los efectos benéficos de las bebidas energizantes, pero si existe suficiente evidencia de los efectos adversos de algunos de sus componentes más comunes. Son necesarios más estudios para determinar con certeza la seguridad de las bebidas energizantes, las cuales poseen un potencial tóxico considerable, que no es informado debidamente al consumidor.


Palabras clave


bebidas energéticas, suplementos dietéticos, cafeína

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Referencias


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