Principales amenazas a la biodiversidad marina

José E. Mancera-Pineda, Brigitte Gavio, Jairo Lasso-Zapata

Resumen


Evaluaciones recientes sobre el conocimiento de la biodiversidad registran que las especies marinas corresponden apenas a un 15% del total de los taxones conocidos en el planeta. La falta de conocimiento de la diversidad marina se suma a una acelerada tasa de pérdida de la misma, debido esencialmente a causas antropogénicas. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una revisión de las principales amenazas de origen humano a la biodiversidad marina, tales como sobrepesca, descarga de nutrientes, derrames de petróleo, destrucción de hábitat, bioinvasiones, florecimientos algales nocivos y cambios globales. Cada una de estas amenazas pone en riesgo una o varias especies, y a largo plazo, modifica hábitats y ecosistemas completos, causando una pérdida de biodiversidad, muchas veces difícil de evaluar. Mientras en los ecosistemas terrestres el principal factor de riesgo es la destrucción de hábitat, en ambientes marinos la sobreexplotación de recursos es la causa principal de pérdida de biodiversidad. La percepción que los ecosistemas marinos son más resilientes a los disturbios que los ecosistemas terrestres necesita ser reevaluada, ya que probablemente no corresponde a la realidad.


Palabras clave


algas nocivas; bioinvasiones; derrames de petróleo; destrucción de hábitat; nutrientes; sobrexplotación de recursos

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Referencias


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