Formaldehido: Revisión de biomarcadores de efecto para la medición de la exposición ocupacional

Iván Rodrigo Astros-Fonseca, David Andrés Combariza-Bayona

Resumen


A pesar de las grades cantidades de formaldehído que se usa en la industria, la vigilancia de los efectos sobre la salud, derivados de la exposición ocupacional, sigue siendo un aspecto por mejorar en los programas de prevención de riesgos laborales.

Objetivo: Identificar los diferentes biomarcadores de efecto que han sido propuestos para ser utilizados como indicadores indirectos de exposición a formaldehído y que se encuentran reportados en la literatura científica.

Metodología: Se hizo una revisión bibliográfica desde el año 1990 hasta el primer trimestre del año 2018, usando los descriptores: “Formaldehído”, “Biomarcador”, “Exposición profesional”. Se consultaron las bases de datos y se complementó la búsqueda inicial, mediante la consulta de la bibliografía citada por los autores de los artículos seleccionados. Se revisaron los resúmenes de los artículos y se seleccionaron aquellos que, luego de un análisis preliminar, se identificó contenían información relevante para la investigación.

Resultados: Se encontraron 57 artículos relevantes para la revisión que contenían información sobre biomarcadores de efecto en poblaciones de trabajadores expuestos a formaldehído, algunos estudios en animales y células in vitro. Se resumieron los biomarcadores usados, listaron los estudios y describieron brevemente los hallazgos de cada uno.

Conclusiones: La falta de conocimiento y entendimiento de los mecanismos toxicocinéticos y toxicodinámicos del formaldehído en los seres humanos limita la aplicación de un biomarcador de efecto que mida de manera práctica y sencilla la exposición al formaldehído exógeno.


Palabras clave


Formaldehído, biomarcadores, exposición ocupacional, efectos adversos, riesgos laborales, seguridad ocupacional, aductos de ADN, Colombia.

Texto completo:

PDF

Referencias


IARC. Formaldehyde, 2-Butoxyethanol and 1-tert-Butoxypropan-2-ol [Internet]. Cancer IA for R on, editor. Vol. 88, Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risk to humans. Lyon, Franc: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2006. 1-390 p. Disponible en: http://monographs.

IARC. FORMALDEHYDE IARC MONOGRAPHS - 100F. Vol. 100, IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. 2012.

Dietrich CJ, Richards IS, Bernard TE, Hammad YY. Human stress protein response to formaldehyde exposure. Exp Toxicol Pathol [Internet]. 1996;48(6):518–9. Disponible en: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0940-2993(96)80071-6

Casas J, Araque L, Herrera D. Caracterización de la exposición ocupacional a formaldehído en trabajadores del sector salud y educación en Colombia 2004-2013. [Internet]. Universidad del Rosario; 2015. Disponible en: http://repository.urosario.edu.co/bitstream/handle/10336/10667/52705144-2015.pdf;sequence=1

Golalipour MJ, Azarhoush R, Ghafari S, Davarian A, Amir S, Fazeli H. Can Formaldehyde Exposure Induce Histopathologic and Morphometric Changes on Rat Kidney? Int J Morphol. 2009;27(4):1195–200.

Mitkus RJ, Hess MA, Schwartz SL. Pharmacokinetic modeling as an approach to assessing the safety of residual formaldehyde in infant vaccines. Vaccine. 2013;31:2738–43.

Cardozo R, Peñalver C, Rivas B, Rivas J, Rivero E, Guevara H, et al. Características Epidemiológicas y Ocupacionales de Trabajadores Expuestos al Formaldehído en Centros Asistenciales. Inf Médico [Internet]. julio de 2007;9(7):365–73. Disponible en: http://ezproxy.unal.edu.co/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=26615157〈=es&site=eds-live

Kleinnijenhuis AJ, Staal YCM, Duistermaat E, Engel R, Woutersen RA. The determination of exogenous formaldehyde in blood of rats during and after inhalation exposure. Food Chem Toxicol [Internet]. 2013;52:105–12. Disponible en: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2012.11.008

Riess U, Tegtbur U, Fauck C, Fuhrmann F, Markewitz D, Salthammer T. Experimental setup and analytical methods for the non-invasive determination of volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde and NOxin exhaled human breath. Anal Chim Acta [Internet]. 2010;669(1–2):53–62. Disponible en: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2010.04.049

Gil Hernández F. El papel de los biomarcadores en Toxicología Humana [Internet]. Departamento de Medicina Legal. Granada: Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Granada; 2000. Disponible en: http://www.citeulike.org/group/16364/article/10691829

Regazzoni LG, Grigoryan H, Ji Z, Chen X, Daniels SI, Huang D, et al. Using lysine adducts of human serum albumin to investigate the disposition of exogenous formaldehyde in human blood. Toxicol Lett. 2017;268:26–35.

Fenech M, Nersesyan A, Knasmueller S. A systematic review of the association between occupational exposure to formaldehyde and effects on chromosomal DNA damage measured using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay in lymphocytes. Mutat Res - Rev Mutat Res. 2016;770:46–57.

Yu R, Lai Y, Hartwell HJ, Moeller BC, Doyle-Eisele M, Kracko D, et al. Formation, Accumulation, and Hydrolysis of Endogenous and Exogenous Formaldehyde-Induced DNA Damage. Toxicol Sci [Internet]. 2015;146(1):170–82. Disponible en: www.ebscohost.com

Costa S, Carvalho S, Costa C, Coelho P, Silva S, Santos LS, et al. Increased levels of chromosomal aberrations and DNA damage in a group of workers exposed to formaldehyde. Mutagenesis. 2015;30(4):463–73.

Lin D, Guo Y, Yi J, Kuang D, Li X, Deng H, et al. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde and genetic damage in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of plywood workers. J Occup Health. 2013;55(4):284–91.

Edrissi B, Taghizadeh K, Moeller BC, Kracko D, Doyle-Eisele M, Swenberg JA, et al. Dosimetry of N6-formyllysine adducts following [ 13C2H2]-formaldehyde exposures in rats. Chem Res Toxicol. 2013;26(10):1421–3.

Viegas S, Nunes C, Malta-Vacas J, Gomes M, Brito M, Mendonça P, et al. Genotoxic effects in occupational exposure to formaldehyde: A study in anatomy and pathology laboratories and formaldehyde-resins production. J Occup Med Toxicol [Internet]. 2010;5(1):25–32. Disponible en: www.occup-med.com/content/5/1/25

Persoz C, Achard S, Leleu C, Momas I, Seta N. An in vitro model to evaluate the inflammatory response after gaseous formaldehyde exposure of lung epithelial cells. Toxicol Lett. 2010;195:99–105.

Malek FA, Möritz KU, Fanghänel J. A study on specific behavioral effects of formaldehyde in the rat. J Exp Anim Sci. 2003;43:160–70.

Malek FA, Móritz K-U, Fanghanel J. Effects of a single inhalative exposure to formaldehyde on the open field behavior of mice. Int J Hyg Environ Health [Internet]. 2004;207:151–8. Disponible en: http://www.elsevier-deutschland.de/intjhyg

Noisel N, Bouchard M, Carrier G. Evaluation of the health impact of lowering the formaldehyde occupational exposure limit for Quebec workers. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2007;48(2):118–27.

Bono R, Romanazzi V, Pirro V, Degan R, Pignata C, Suppo E, et al. Formaldehyde and tobacco smoke as alkylating agents: The formation of N-methylenvaline in pathologists and in plastic laminate workers. Sci Total Environ [Internet]. 2012;414:701–7. Disponible en: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.10.047

Pala M, Ugolini D, Ceppi M, Rizzo F, Maiorana L, Bolognesi C, et al. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde and biological monitoring of Research Institute workers. Cancer Detect Prev. 2008;32(2):121–6.

ToxLogic. Review of 2016 ACGIH Formaldehyde : TLV ( R ) Chemical Substances Draft Documentation , Notice of Intended Change. Gaithersburg; 2016. p. 1–8.

Rager JE, Moeller BC, Miller SK, Kracko D, Doyle-Eisele M, Swenberg JA, et al. Formaldehyde-associated changes in micrornas: Tissue and temporal specificity in the rat nose, white blood cells, and bone marrow. Toxicol Sci. 2014;138(1):36–46.

Amiri A, Turner-Henson A. The Roles of Formaldehyde Exposure and Oxidative Stress in Fetal Growth in the Second Trimester. JOGNN - J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs [Internet]. 2017;46(1):51–62. Disponible en: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jogn.2016.08.007

Romanazzi V, Pirro V, Bellisario V, Mengozzi G, Peluso M, Pazzi M, et al. 15-F2t isoprostane as biomarker of oxidative stress induced by tobacco smoke and occupational exposure to formaldehyde in workers of plastic laminates. Sci Total Environ [Internet]. 2013;442:20–5. Disponible en: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.10.057

Zhong W, Que Hee SS. Formaldehyde-induced DNA adducts as biomarkers of in vitro human nasal epithelial cell exposure to formaldehyde. Mutat Res - Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen. 2004;563(1):13–24.

Bono R, Vincenti M, Schiliro’ T, Scursatone E, Pignata C, Gilli G. N-methylenvaline in a group of subjects occupationally exposed to formaldehyde. Toxicol Lett. 2006;161(1):10–7.

Zhang L, Tang X, Rothman N, Vermeulen R, Ji Z, Shen M, et al. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde, hematotoxicity, and leukemia-specific chromosome changes in cultured myeloid progenitor cells. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010;19(1):80–8.

Zhang L, Steinmaus C, Eastmond DA, Xin XK, Smith MT. Formaldehyde exposure and leukemia: A new meta-analysis and potential mechanisms. Mutat Res - Rev Mutat Res. 2009;681(2–3):150–68.

Wei C, Chen M, You H, Qiu F, Wen H, Yuan J, et al. Formaldehyde and co-exposure with benzene induce compensation of bone marrow and hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in BALB/c mice during post-exposure period. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol [Internet]. 2017;324:36–44. Disponible en: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2017.03.024

Seow WJ, Zhang L, Vermeulen R, Tang X, Hu W, Bassig BA, et al. Circulating immune/inflammation markers in Chinese workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde. Carcinogenesis. 2015;36(8):852–7.

Wen H, Yuan L, Wei C, Zhao Y, Qian Y, Ma P, et al. Effects of combined exposure to formaldehyde and benzene on immune cells in the blood and spleen in Balb/c mice. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol [Internet]. 2016;45:265–73. Disponible en: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2016.05.007

Bassig BA, Zhang L, Vermeulen R, Tang X, Li G, Hu W, et al. Comparison of hematological alterations and markers of B-cell activation in workers exposed to benzene, formaldehyde and trichloroethylene. Carcinogenesis. 2016;37(7):692–700.

Ji Z, Li X, Fromowitz M, Mutter-Rottmayer E, Tung J, Smith MT, et al. Formaldehyde induces micronuclei in mouse erythropoietic cells and suppresses the expansion of human erythroid progenitor cells. Toxicol Lett [Internet]. 2014;224(2):233–9. Disponible en: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2013.10.028

Ladeira C, Viegas S, Carolino E, Prista J, Gomes MC, Brito M. Genotoxicity biomarkers in occupational exposure to formaldehyde-The case of histopathology laboratories. Mutat Res - Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen [Internet]. 2011;721(1):15–20. Disponible en: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2010.11.015

Costa S, Costa C, Silva S, Coelho P, Porto B, Teixeira JP. Cytogenetic alterations in formaldehyde exposed workers measured in a target and distal tissue. Toxicol Lett [Internet]. 2013;221(2013):S63. Disponible en: http://ovidsp.ovid.com/ovidweb.cgi?T=JS&CSC=Y&NEWS=N&PAGE=fulltext&D=emed11&AN=71201025 http://oxfordsfx.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/oxford?sid=OVID:embase&id=pmid:&id=doi:10.1016%2Fj.toxlet.2013.05.029&issn=0378-4274&isbn=&volume=221&issue=&spage=S63&pages=

Ladeira C, Gomes MC, Brito M. XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism influence on genotoxicity biomarkers frequency in workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde. Eur J Cancer, Suppl [Internet]. 2010;8(5):20. Disponible en: http://www.embase.com/search/results?subaction=viewrecord&from=export&id=L70192583%5Cnhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1359-6349(10)70884-3%5Cnhttp://sfx.library.uu.nl/utrecht?sid=EMBASE&issn=13596349&id=doi:10.1016/S1359-6349(10)70884-3&atitle=XRCC3+Thr241Met+

Rivera C, Rosales J. Genotoxic damage and occupational exposure to formaldehyde in anatomic pathology laboratory workers. Toxicol Lett [Internet]. 2015;238(2, Supplement):S103. Disponible en: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S037842741502278X

Zhang J, Sun R, Chen Y, Tan K, Wei H, Yin L, et al. Small molecule metabolite biomarker candidates in urine from mice exposed to formaldehyde. Int J Mol Sci. 2014;15:16458–68.

Li Q, Mei Q, Huyan T, Xie L, Che S, Yang H, et al. Effects of formaldehyde exposure on human NK cells in vitro. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2013;36(3):948–55.

Hosgood III HD, Zhang L, Tang X, Vermeulen R, Hao Z, Shen M, et al. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde and alterations in lymphocyte subsets. Am J Ind Med. 2013;56(2):252–7.

Costa S, Costa C, García-Léston J, Coelho P, Silva S, Carvalho S, et al. Human exposure to formaldehyde, a risk evaluation of occupational health effects. Toxicol Lett [Internet]. 2014;229:S116. Disponible en: http://www.embase.com/search/results?subaction=viewrecord&from=export&id=L71631238%5Cnhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2014.06.419%5Cnhttp://sfx.library.uu.nl/utrecht?sid=EMBASE&issn=03784274&id=doi:10.1016/j.toxlet.2014.06.419&atitle=Human+exposure+to+

Murta GL, Campos KKD, Bandeira ACB, Diniz MF, De Paula Costa G, Costa DC, et al. Oxidative effects on lung inflammatory response in rats exposed to different concentrations of formaldehyde. Environ Pollut. 2016;211:206–13.

Zendehdel R, Fazli Z, Mazinani M. Neurotoxicity effect of formaldehyde on occupational exposure and influence of individual susceptibility to some metabolism parameters. Environ Monit Assess. 2016;(188):648.

Lan Q, Smith MT, Tang X, Guo W, Vermeulen R, Ji Z, et al. Chromosome-wide aneuploidy study of cultured circulating myeloid progenitor cells from workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde. Carcinogenesis [Internet]. 2015;36(1):160–7. Disponible en: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25391402

Ramos C de O, Nardeli CR, Campos KKD, Pena KB, Machado DF, Bandeira ACB, et al. The exposure to formaldehyde causes renal dysfunction, inflammation and redox imbalance in rats. Exp Toxicol Pathol [Internet]. 2017;69(6):367–72. Disponible en: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etp.2017.02.008

Peteffi GP, Antunes MV, Carrer C, Valandro ET, Santos S, Glaeser J, et al. Environmental and biological monitoring of occupational formaldehyde exposure resulting from the use of products for hair straightening. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2016;23:908–17.

Jakab MG, Klupp T, Besenyei K, Biró A, Major J, Tompa A. Formaldehyde-induced chromosomal aberrations and apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes of personnel working in pathology departments. Mutat Res - Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen. 2010;698:11–7.

Pontel LB, Rosado I V., Burgos-Barragan G, Garaycoechea JI, Yu R, Arends MJ, et al. Endogenous Formaldehyde Is a Hematopoietic Stem Cell Genotoxin and Metabolic Carcinogen. Mol Cell [Internet]. 2015;60(1):177–88. Disponible en: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2015.08.020

Jiang S, Yu L, Cheng J, Leng S, Dai Y, Zhang Y, et al. Genomic damages in peripheral blood lymphocytes and association with polymorphisms of three glutathione S-transferases in workers exposed to formaldehyde. Mutat Res - Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen [Internet]. 2010;695(1–2):9–15. Disponible en: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2009.09.011

Shaham J, Bomstein Y, Gurvich R, Rashkovsky M, Kaufman Z. DNA-protein crosslinks and p53 protein expression in relation to occupational exposure to formaldehyde. Occup Environ Med. 2003;60(6):403–9.

Costa S, Coelho P, Costa C, Silva S, Mayan O, Santos LS, et al. Genotoxic damage in pathology anatomy laboratory workers exposed to formaldehyde. Toxicology. 2008;252(1–3):40–8.

Ladeira C, Gomes MC, Brito M. Genotoxicity biomarkers in occupational exposure to formaldehyde in pathology anatomy laboratories. Eur J Cancer Suppl [Internet]. 2010;8(5):19. Disponible en: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1359-6349(10)70883-1

Lu J, Miao J, Su T, Liu Y, He R. Formaldehyde induces hyperphosphorylation and polymerization of Tau protein both in vitro and in vivo. Biochim Biophys Acta - Gen Subj [Internet]. 2013;1830(8):4102–16. Disponible en: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagen.2013.04.028

Luo FC, Zhou J, Lv T, Qi L, Wang SD, Nakamura H, et al. Induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress and the modulation of thioredoxin-1 in formaldehyde-induced neurotoxicity. Neurotoxicology. 2012;33(3):290–8.

Zeller J, Neuss S, Mueller JU, Kühner S, Holzmann K, Högel J, et al. Assessment of genotoxic effects and changes in gene expression in humans exposed to formaldehyde by inhalation under controlled conditions. Mutagenesis. 2011;26(4):555–61.

Ministerio de Ambiente Vivienda y Desarrollo Territorial de Colombia. Guías para manejo seguro y gestión ambiental de 25 sustancias químicas. Publicaciones MinAmbiente. Bogotá; 2003.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.rfnsp.v37n3a09 Resumen : 38 PDF : 20

Métricas de artículo

Cargando métricas ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.


Esta publicación hace parte del Sistema de Revistas de la Universidad de Antioquia
¿Quieres aprender a usar el Open Journal system? Ingresa al Curso virtual
Este sistema es administrado por el Programa Integración de Tecnologías a la Docencia
Universidad de Antioquia
Powered by Public Knowledge Project