Relación médico-industria y los conflictos de interés: aspectos históricos y normativos, impactos negativos y propuestas

Giuseppe Genta-Mesa, Iván D. Flórez

Resumen


El presente artículo revisa de manera narrativa y general la relación entre los médicos y la industria (RMI); se incluye a la industria farmacéutica, de dispositivos, de suplementos y los conflictos de intereses que surgen de dicha relación. Se aborda el tema mediante algunas definiciones y un breve recuento histórico de cómo la RMI se ha convertido en un problema importante en el ejercicio médico y los sistemas de salud.

El artículo expone los diversos roles dentro de los escenarios más comunes en los que ocurre la RMI: en la investigación biomédica, las guías de práctica clínica, la educación médica continua, la visita médica, los líderes de opinión, así como en la interacción directa, la exposición indirecta y la que denominamos exposición temprana. Se mencionan, posteriormente, algunas técnicas que utiliza la industria para modificar los hábitos de prescripción basadas en elementos de psicología social, así como el papel que ejercen los obsequios y otras estrategias de mercadeo.

Se revisó la literatura que muestra el impacto y el efecto que estas técnicas tienen en el ejercicio médico. Finalmente, se plantean algunas propuestas que se han desarrollado desde la normatividad y recomendaciones para afrontar el problema que podrían contribuir a mitigar los efectos negativos de una RMI muy estrecha. Estas propuestas son prohibir el contacto de los estudiantes con la industria, la inclusión del tema de conflictos de intereses (CI) en los currículos de medicina, financiación alternativa de la educación continua, declaración de conflictos como norma, campañas de concientización, uso de evidencia sintetizada y analizada transparente e independientemente, entre otras.


Palabras clave


Conflictos de Intereses; Educación Médica; Ética Médica; Industria Farmacéutica

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Referencias


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.iatreia.16 Resumen : 1191 PDF : 110

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