Microbiota intestinal y ácidos grasos de cadena corta en pacientes críticos

Gloria M. Agudelo-Ochoa, Nubia A. Giraldo-Giraldo, Carlos J. Barrera-Causil, Beatriz E. Valdés-Duque

Resumen


Antecedentes: diversos estudios han mostrado cambios en la microbiota intestinal (MI) y los ácidos grasos de cadena corta (AGCC) en pacientes críticos con síndrome de respuesta inflamatoria sistémica (SRIS). Objetivo: revisar la evidencia sobre el papel de la MI y los AGCC en pacientes críticos y su modulación con prebióticos, probióticos y simbióticos. Materiales y métodos: búsqueda de artículos en bases de datos bibliográficas Pubmed, Science Direct, Ovid, Medline y Scopus, utilizando como descriptores microbiota, critically ill, intensive care unit, systemic inflmmatory response síndrome, short-chain fatty acids, prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics Resultados: la MI en pacientes críticos está disminuida tanto en número de bacterias como en diversidad, lo cual puede resultar en una desregulación de la respuesta inmune sistémica ante la invasión de microorganismos patógenos. Los cambios en los AGCC en pacientes críticos se atribuyen a una disminución de bacterias anaerobias obligadas y sustratos de fermentación necesarios para su producción. La modulación de la MI con probióticos, prebióticos y simbióticos sugiere mejoría en la función intestinal. Conclusiones: la MI y los AGCC en pacientes críticos se encuentran alterados, de ahí que mantener el equilibrio en el entorno intestinal probablemente desempeñe una función clave para disminuir complicaciones y mejorar su pronóstico.

 

 


Palabras clave


paciente crítico; microbiota; ácidos grasos de cadena corta; síndrome de respuesta inflamatoria sistémica; probióticos; prebióticos; simbióticos.

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Referencias


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.17533/udea.penh.v18n2a06 Resumen : 1964 PDF : 1526

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